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WEATHER | NATURAL DISASTERS | EARTHQUAKES | TSUNAMIS

WEATHER & NATURAL DISASTERS


Below-normal Atlantic Hurricane Season is likely this year

For the hurricane season, which officially runs from June 1 — November 30, NOAA is predicting a 70 percent likelihood of 6 to 11 named storms (winds of 39 mph or higher), of which 3 to 6 could become hurricanes (winds of 74 mph or higher), including zero to 2 major hurricanes (Category 3, 4 or 5; winds of 111 mph or higher).

Global climate on verge of multi-decadal change

The global climate is on the verge of broad-scale change that could last for a number of decades a new study implies. The change to the new set of climatic conditions is associated with a cooling of the Atlantic, and is likely to bring drier summers in Britain and Ireland, accelerated sea-level rise along the northeast coast of the United States, and drought in the developing countries of the Sahel region.

Destructive factors causing deterioration of paints on buildings walls

Scientists have investigated how various destructive factors affect painted building walls. According to their report, the external surface of building walls is continuously affected by the natural climate of variable intensity and the factors occurring due to the anthropogenic activity.

Deciphering clues to prehistoric climate changes locked in cave deposits

It turns out that the steady dripping of water deep underground can reveal a surprising amount of information about the constantly changing cycles of heat and cold, precipitation and drought in the turbulent atmosphere above. The analysis of a stalagmite from a cave in north east India can detect the link between El Nino conditions in the Pacific Ocean and the Indian monsoon, a new study has found.

How meteorological partnership between US, Cuba was created over 20 years

The two-decade-long process to form an active meteorological partnership between the United States and Cuba has been described in a new article. While the U.S. and Cuba have shared meteorological information and data relating to hurricanes and other tropical storms starting as early as the mid-1800’s, this is the first time a partnership of this level has been created; it included the shipping and installation of sensitive GPS monitoring equipment, something that would normally not be allowed by either government.

Cold weather kills far more people than hot weather

Cold weather kills 20 times as many people as hot weather, according to an international study analyzing over 74 million deaths in 384 locations across 13 countries. The findings also reveal that deaths due to moderately hot or cold weather substantially exceed those resulting from extreme heat waves or cold spells.

Colorado’s biggest storms can happen any time, study shows

In a state known for its dramatic weather and climate, Colorado’s history of extreme precipitation varies considerably by season and location, according to a new study. Decision makers — often facing increased pressure to consider climate change information — typically turn to historical averages to understand when and where extreme rain, hail and snow happen in the state. But those averages often are not reliable because they’re based on observations of events that don’t happen frequently and because the observations themselves are limited, especially in remote areas, researchers say.

EARTHQUAKES


Seismic signals used to track above-ground explosions

Researchers have determined that a tunnel bomb explosion by Syrian rebels was less than 60 tons as claimed by sources. Using seismic stations in Turkey, the scientists created a method to determine source characteristics of near earth surface explosions. They found the above-ground tunnel bomb blast under the Wadi al-Deif Army Base near Aleppo last spring was likely not as large as originally estimated and was closer to 40 tons.

Signs of ancient earthquakes may raise risks for New Zealand

Researchers have uncovered the first geologic evidence that New Zealand’s southern Hikurangi margin can rupture during large earthquakes. The two earthquakes took place within the last 1000 years, and one was accompanied by a tsunami, according to the study.

Common mechanism for shallow and deep earthquakes proposed

Geologists report that a universal sliding mechanism operates for earthquakes of all depths — from the deep ones all the way up to the crustal ones. The physics of the sliding is the self-lubrication of the earthquake fault by flow of a new material consisting of tiny new crystals, the study reports.

Earthquakes reveal deep secrets beneath East Asia

A new supercomputer model combined earthquake data to create 3-D tomographic images to depths of 900 km, or 560 miles below East Asia. Notable features found include a high velocity structure beneath Tibetan Plateau; and a deep mantle upwelling under Hangai dome in Mongolia.This research could help find hidden hydrocarbon resources and explore deep structures elsewhere.

The origins and future of Lake Eyre and the Murray-Darling Basin

Geoscientists have, for the first time, discovered the origins of Australia’s two largest basins: Lake Eyre and the Murray-Darling Basin. The research also implies that in 30 million years’ time both basins will cease to exist.

Explosive volcanoes fueled by water

Geologists have tapped water in surface rocks to show how magma forms deep underground and produces explosive volcanoes in the Cascade Range.

Earthquakes: Supercycles in subduction zones

When tectonic plates collide, they produce earthquakes like the recent one in Nepal. Researchers are providing new ways to explain how and why earthquake supercycles occur in zones where one plate moves under another, such as off the coast of Japan.

TSUNAMIS


Signs of ancient earthquakes may raise risks for New Zealand

Researchers have uncovered the first geologic evidence that New Zealand’s southern Hikurangi margin can rupture during large earthquakes. The two earthquakes took place within the last 1000 years, and one was accompanied by a tsunami, according to the study.

Earthquakes: Supercycles in subduction zones

When tectonic plates collide, they produce earthquakes like the recent one in Nepal. Researchers are providing new ways to explain how and why earthquake supercycles occur in zones where one plate moves under another, such as off the coast of Japan.

Tidal tugs on ‘Teflon’ faults drive slow-slipping earthquakes

Teasing out how slow, silent earthquakes respond to tidal forces lets researchers calculate the friction inside the fault, which could help understand when and how the more hazardous earthquakes occur.

The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake was felt from space

For the first time, a natural source of infrasonic waves of Earth has been measured directly from space — 450 kilometers above the planet’s surface.

Earthquake potential where there is no earthquake history

It may seem unlikely that a large earthquake would take place hundreds of kilometers away from a tectonic plate boundary, in areas with low levels of strain on the crust from tectonic motion. But major earthquakes such as New Zealand’s 2011 Mw 6.3 quake have shown that large earthquakes do occur. So what should seismologists look for if they want to identify where an earthquake might happen despite the absence of historical seismic activity?

Magma intrusion is likely source of Columbia-Ecuador border quake swarms

The ‘seismic crisis’ around the region of the Chiles and Cerro Negro de Mayasquer volcanoes near the Columbia-Ecuador border is likely caused by intruding magma, according to a new report.

New research complicates seismic hazard for British Columbia, Alaska region

The Pacific and North America plate boundary off the coast of British Columbia and southeastern Alaska is a complex system of faults capable of producing very large earthquakes. The recent 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii and 2013 Mw 7.5 Craig earthquakes released strain built up over years, but did not release strain along the Queen Charlotte Fault, which remains the likely source of a future large earthquake.

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